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Diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases. When a person has diabetes, they have high blood glucose (blood sugar) over an extended period of time. This is either because insulin production is inadequate, because the body is not responding properly to insulin, or a combination of the two.

There are three main types of diabetes:

  • Type 1 Diabetes: This type of diabetes results from they body’s failure to produce insulin. As a result, the body cannot regulate blood sugar properly. It was formerly know as juvenile diabetes, but it can develop in patients of any age. Patients with this type of diabetes will need insulin injections for the rest of their lives.
  • Type 2 Diabetes: This type of diabetes comes from an insulin resistance, which results in high blood sugar. Patients with type 2 diabetes still produce insulin, unlike those with type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, seen in 90% of all people diagnosed with diabetes, and is often found in obese patients.
  • Gestational Diabetes: This type of diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar that is first seen during pregnancy. It is caused by the body’s insulin receptors not properly functioning during pregnancy.
There are other conditions associated with diabetes:
  • Diabetic Kidney Disease: Diabetes is a major risk factor for chronic kidney disease. In fact, diabetes is the number one cause for kidney failure. When a person has diabetes, their small blood vessels are damaged, making it difficult for the kidneys to properly filter your blood.
  • Diabetic Neuropathy: Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that is associated with diabetes. People with diabetic neuropathy often encounter painful tingling, numbness, and shooting pain in their hands and feet.

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